041 » What is Urvan?

Urvan or soul is purely spiritual principle in the human constitution. Every human soul is potentially divine and through the best righteousness one can so illumine one's soul as to be in the nearest relationship with Ahura Mazda.

042 » What is Fravashi?

Fravashi or the guardian spirit is the most spiritual of all the invisible principles in the human constitution,and its function is to guide the soul in its material existence.Fravashi is also associated with the function of providing energy to the body along with ushtaana.

043 » What are the instruments or faculties of soul?

Instruments or faculties of soul(ravaan avzaaraan) are mainly three : 1)reasoning(vir) which penetrates, 2)consciousness(osh) which protects, and 3) wisdom(khrat) which determines.

044 » How is Wisdom classified?

Wisdom is classified as innate wisdom (aasn-khrat) and acquired wisdom (goshosrut khrat).Without the former one is unable to acquire the latter.One can sharpen inate wisdom through acquired wisdom which can be obtained through learning and knowledge.

045 » What is one of the fundamental theories of Zoroastrian cosmogony?

One of the fundamental theories of Zoroastrian cosmogony is that at first there was the spiritual existence and Ahura Mazda first produced material creation in a spiritual form and then again He produced it in material form.Cosmogony means the birth of the whole creation.

046 » What is another theory of Zoroastrian cosmogony?

Another theory of Zoroastrian cosmogony is that the material creations have come into existence at different stages.This is the evolutionary theory of Gaahambaars according to which the order of creations is the sky, the water, the earth, the vegetation, the animal.

047 » What is the third theory of zoroastrian cosmonogy?

The third theory is that the creations have emerged from light.Ahura Mazda out of his own light first produced a form of creation in the shape of fire,bright and white.

048 » What is the fourth theory of Zoroastrian cosmonogy?

The fourth theory is that before anything came into existence Ahura Mazda uttered Ahuna Vairya,the holy spell,which may be called Zoroastrian logos.It must have produced vibrations,and step by step creations must have come into being.

049 » What is behind the act of creations?

Zoroastrian concept of divine Mind is behind the act of creations.Ahura Mazda first thought and mingled happiness with luminaries and through wisdom produced the immutable law of Asha (Yasna 31-7)The workings of the universe also reveal the mental power of the Architect of universe.

050 » How is the factor of time associated with Zoroastrian cosmonogy?

It is but natural.Creation cannot be conceived apart from time.It must have come into existence at some particular time.Ahura Mazda fashioned limited time from infinite time and the creation took place in the former.

051 » By what name are the priests known amoung the Zoroastrians?

Amoung the Zoroastrians the priest are known as Athravans.The word Athravan means one who tends the fire.In the eastern Iranian provinces in ancient times they acted as fire priests.

052 » What were the different grades of Athravans in ancient times?

There were different grades of Atharvans in ancient times depending on their holiness and spiritual attainments at different levels.Three grades of Athravans are mentioned in the Avesta.(khurdaad Yasht - 9).

053 » What are the three classes of Athravans today?

The three grades of Athravans today are Ervad, Mobed and Dastur.

054 » Who is an Ervad?

The word Ervad is derived from Avesta aethrapaiti which means a teacher or an instructor.In ancient times one who was most advanced in righteousness,was deemed fit for priestly profession,and for three years he had to acquire holy wisdom under an able teacher.

055 » Who is a Mobed?

The word Mobed is derieved from Pahlavi magupat which means a master Magian.Magians were the priests in Western Iran in ancient times.A mobed can perform high ceremonies of the inner circle like Yazashne,Visperad,Vendidad and Baaj.

056 » Who is a Dastur?

The word Dastur is derieved from Pahlavi Dastabar meaning one who exercises authority.A Dastur should combine in himself the best qualities of head and heart.He is expected to be holy, having innate wisdom and spiritual insight which are the two important qualities expected of a high priest.

057 » What is Naavar?

Before being initiated as an Ervad the son of the priest today has to undergo Naavar ordainment which consists of two Barshnums with nine nights of retreat in each to observe strict rules and gain self-control and four days for performing ceremonies.

058 » What is Maraatab?

To become a Mobed an Ervad has to undergo Maraatab ordainment for which one Barshnum with nine nights of retreats is required and then two days for performing ceremonies.

059 » What is Aalaat?

Aalaat is an Arabic word which means implement,apparatus, and these are required for performing some high ceremonies like Yazashne,Visperad and Vendidad.The Aalaat are first of all rendered pure before being used in the ceremonies.

060 » Who is an Ashmogh?

The word Asmogh is Avesta ashemaogha which means one who violates Asha.The main teachings of the Zoroastrian religion are based on Asha.Therefore one who does not follow the principles of Asha is heretic,So an Ashmogh or a heretic is in contradistinction to an Ashavan or a holy person.